Recently I've done some analysis on human mitochondrial DNA and now I want to run the same analysis on only hypervariable regions of mitochondrial DNA to see whether the changes that I have observed are linked to only hypervariable regions. To do that, I'll need to make new fasta files from the mitochondrial DNA entries that I have and I want to know how to extract those. Any leads will be appreciated.
You can use Mitomap to get the coordinates of the hypervariable regions in the rCRS mitochondrial sequence (the standard MT sequence in the field). I checked the Genome Loci section of Mitomap and saw that it lists three:
Map Locus Starting Ending Shorthand Description MT-HV1 16024 16383 CR:HVS1/HV1 Hypervariable segment 1 [classic:16024-16365] MT-HV2 57 372 CR:HVS2 Hypervariable segment 2 [classic:73-340 ] MT-HV3 438 574 CR:HVS3 Hypervariable segment 3
That gives you the coordinates on the rCRS sequence. What you can do now, is align all of your sequences and the rCRS together and see if you can infer where the hypervariable regions fall in your target sequences. Since, presumably, the rest of the sequence will be more conserved since it isn't hypervariable, you should be able to identify the syntenic blocks and locate the hypervariable regions in your sequences. I would expect to see a very high level of sequence identity in the non-hypervariable regions across all of your sequences (since they're all human mitochondria), so you should be able to find the hypervariable ones as the regions of low sequence similarity which also coincide with the known coordinates of the rCRS.