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I have mapped reads to the yeast (R64-1-1) genome with STAR like this:

STAR --runThreadN 44 --runMode alignReads --genomeDir /home/user/Documents/scripts/pyseqtools/index/STAR/R64-1-1 --readFilesIn /home/user/Documents/analyses/TT-Seq/user/trim/WT_3_R1_001_val_1.fq.gz /home/user/Documents/analyses/TT-Seq/user/trim/WT_3_R2_001_val_2.fq.gz --readFilesCommand zcat --quantMode TranscriptomeSAM GeneCounts --twopassMode Basic --outSAMunmapped None --outSAMattrRGline ID:WT_3 PU:WT_3 SM:WT_3 LB:unknown PL:illumina --outSAMtype BAM Unsorted --outTmpDir /home/user/Documents/analyses/TT-Seq/user/tmp --outFileNamePrefix /home/user/Documents/analyses/TT-Seq/user/bam/R64-1-1/WT_3/WT_3

I wanted to count the reads using htseq-count as follows:

htseq-count --quiet --format bam --stranded yes /home/user/Documents/analyses/TT-Seq/user/bam/R64-1-1/WT_3/WT_3Aligned.out.bam /home/user/Documents/scripts/pyseqtools/gtf/R64-1-1/Saccharomyces_cerevisiae.R64-1-1.106.gtf > /home/user/Documents/analyses/TT-Seq/user/htseq-count/WT_3.count.txt

The problem is that most reads map to no_feature:

__no_feature    4462786
__ambiguous 12644
__too_low_aQual 0
__not_aligned   4907
__alignment_not_unique  12529444

I have check whether the chromosome names in the BAM file and the GTF file matched (which they seem to do):

BAM:
@HD VN:1.4
@SQ SN:I    LN:230218
@SQ SN:II   LN:813184
@SQ SN:III  LN:316620
@SQ SN:IV   LN:1531933
@SQ SN:V    LN:576874
@SQ SN:VI   LN:270161
@SQ SN:VII  LN:1090940
@SQ SN:VIII LN:562643
@SQ SN:IX   LN:439888
@SQ SN:X    LN:745751
@SQ SN:XI   LN:666816
@SQ SN:XII  LN:1078177
@SQ SN:XIII LN:924431
@SQ SN:XIV  LN:784333
@SQ SN:XV   LN:1091291
@SQ SN:XVI  LN:948066
@SQ SN:Mito LN:85779

GTF: 
IV  sgd gene    8683    9756    .   -   .   gene_id "YDL246C"; gene_name "SOR2"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding";
IV  sgd transcript  8683    9756    .   -   .   gene_id "YDL246C"; transcript_id "YDL246C_mRNA"; gene_name "SOR2"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "SOR2"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding";
IV  sgd exon    8683    9756    .   -   .   gene_id "YDL246C"; transcript_id "YDL246C_mRNA"; exon_number "1"; gene_name "SOR2"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "SOR2"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding"; exon_id "YDL246C_mRNA-E1";
IV  sgd CDS 8686    9756    .   -   0   gene_id "YDL246C"; transcript_id "YDL246C_mRNA"; exon_number "1"; gene_name "SOR2"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "SOR2"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding"; protein_id "YDL246C";
IV  sgd start_codon 9754    9756    .   -   0   gene_id "YDL246C"; transcript_id "YDL246C_mRNA"; exon_number "1"; gene_name "SOR2"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "SOR2"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding";
IV  sgd stop_codon  8683    8685    .   -   0   gene_id "YDL246C"; transcript_id "YDL246C_mRNA"; exon_number "1"; gene_name "SOR2"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "SOR2"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding";
IV  sgd gene    17577   18566   .   -   .   gene_id "YDL243C"; gene_name "AAD4"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding";
IV  sgd transcript  17577   18566   .   -   .   gene_id "YDL243C"; transcript_id "YDL243C_mRNA"; gene_name "AAD4"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "AAD4"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding";
IV  sgd exon    17577   18566   .   -   .   gene_id "YDL243C"; transcript_id "YDL243C_mRNA"; exon_number "1"; gene_name "AAD4"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "AAD4"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding"; exon_id "YDL243C_mRNA-E1";
IV  sgd CDS 17580   18566   .   -   0   gene_id "YDL243C"; transcript_id "YDL243C_mRNA"; exon_number "1"; gene_name "AAD4"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "AAD4"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding"; protein_id "YDL243C";
IV  sgd start_codon 18564   18566   .   -   0   gene_id "YDL243C"; transcript_id "YDL243C_mRNA"; exon_number "1"; gene_name "AAD4"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "AAD4"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding";
IV  sgd stop_codon  17577   17579   .   -   0   gene_id "YDL243C"; transcript_id "YDL243C_mRNA"; exon_number "1"; gene_name "AAD4"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "AAD4"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding";
IV  sgd gene    1248154 1249821 .   -   .   gene_id "YDR387C"; gene_name "CIN10"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding";
IV  sgd transcript  1248154 1249821 .   -   .   gene_id "YDR387C"; transcript_id "YDR387C_mRNA"; gene_name "CIN10"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "CIN10"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding";
IV  sgd exon    1248154 1249821 .   -   .   gene_id "YDR387C"; transcript_id "YDR387C_mRNA"; exon_number "1"; gene_name "CIN10"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "CIN10"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding"; exon_id "YDR387C_mRNA-E1";
IV  sgd CDS 1248157 1249821 .   -   0   gene_id "YDR387C"; transcript_id "YDR387C_mRNA"; exon_number "1"; gene_name "CIN10"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "CIN10"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding"; protein_id "YDR387C";
IV  sgd start_codon 1249819 1249821 .   -   0   gene_id "YDR387C"; transcript_id "YDR387C_mRNA"; exon_number "1"; gene_name "CIN10"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "CIN10"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding";
IV  sgd stop_codon  1248154 1248156 .   -   0   gene_id "YDR387C"; transcript_id "YDR387C_mRNA"; exon_number "1"; gene_name "CIN10"; gene_source "sgd"; gene_biotype "protein_coding"; transcript_name "CIN10"; transcript_source "sgd"; transcript_biotype "protein_coding";


Edit: the output of ReadsPerGene.out.tab is (thanks swbarnes2) :

N_unmapped  73359652    73359652    73359652
N_multimapping  15789900    15789900    15789900
N_noFeature 192619  5872967 380420
N_ambiguous 648956  13479   430527

Would anyone know why most reads map to no_feature?

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  • 2
    $\begingroup$ You are already running it with GeneCounts, which should output the same as htseq-count. What does your ReadsPerGene.out.tab say? $\endgroup$
    – swbarnes2
    Jul 27, 2022 at 22:16
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Do your gtf contains exon entris (i.e. with "exon" on the 3rd column)? Could you please update your question with a few exon entries from your gtf? $\endgroup$
    – bepoli
    Jul 29, 2022 at 11:18

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