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In other words, are NCBI37 and hg19 synonymous? I can't find much information for what NCBI37 is in a human (not mouse) genome.

The VCF is from a lab sequencing human genomes, and they're no longer able to be reached out to. I can't provide a link to NCBI37 because I don't know what it is and I can't find much information on it.

Relevant line from VCF: "##reference=NCBI37"

Here is part of the VCF header:

##fileformat=VCFv4.2
##source=apt-format-result:2.10.2
##reference=NCBI37
##FORMAT=<ID=GT,Number=1,Type=String,Description="Genotype">
##contig=<ID=1>
##contig=<ID=10>
##contig=<ID=11>
##contig=<ID=12>
##contig=<ID=19> [omitted some chromosomes for brevity]
##contig=<ID=2>
##contig=<ID=20>
##contig=<ID=MT>
##contig=<ID=X>
##contig=<ID=Y>
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Most likely yes, they are the same.

However, "NCBI37" is an odd/unusual notation, because it doesn't indicate the species (human / mouse). Assuming it's a human genome (based on you comparing it to hg19 rather than mm19, or something else), then the correct name for the NCBI reference should be GRCh37.

As it's a different name, we can only make guesses as to what the people who generated the VCF meant. You'll need to talk directly to them in order to be sure.

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