The quote below is from this paper:
We performed principal component analysis (PCA) of low-coverage sequencing data to identify genes explaining variation across cells. PCA separated the cells into groups corresponding to the source populations (Fig. 2c and Supplementary Figs. 3–5), and the genes distinguishing each group reflected the biological properties of the cell types (Supplementary Fig. 5 and Supplementary Table 3). PCA of low- and high-coverage sequencing data revealed a remarkably similar graphical distribution of analyzed cells, and the majority (78%) of the top 500 genes determined by PCA were shared between PCA performed on low- and high-coverage data (Supplementary Figs. 4 and 6 and Supplementary Table 4).
How are they performing PCA and then finding out the components which contribute to the strongest PC and then taking out the genes for downstream analysis? Let's say there are genes involved in PC1 and PC2 which define a certain cell type and that distinguish it. I think for a biologist, like me, I just want to get the genes or gene list that are getting involved in determining lineage or cell type. How can I do this?
As a to test what they might be doing i did this
test<- read.csv('NON_CODING.csv',header = T,row.names = 1) # preform PCA pca = prcomp(t(test), center=TRUE, scale=TRUE)
then after calculating PCA i do see this in my console when I type pca
> pca Standard deviations (1, .., p=16):  3.826851e+01 2.080405e+01 1.568739e+01 1.349256e+01 1.119348e+01 9.980547e+00 8.365034e+00  8.098841e+00 7.519507e+00 6.184505e+00 5.880260e+00 5.139609e+00 4.851091e+00 4.335606e+00  3.870918e+00 3.173450e-14 Rotation (n x k) = (2899 x 16): PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 5S_rRNA -1.090574e-02 -2.412665e-03 1.637689e-02 -3.603865e-02 AB019441.29 -1.928250e-02 1.821083e-03 -9.713724e-03 -1.978737e-03 ABBA01017803.1 -1.823266e-02 -3.727144e-03 -9.790131e-04 -3.937062e-02 ABC14-1080714F14.1 2.438024e-02 3.816019e-03 1.657784e-04 -7.141480e-03 ABC7-481722F1.1 2.467403e-02 2.873432e-03 3.781153e-03 3.790824e-03 AC000036.4 -1.066777e-02 2.838305e-02 2.642673e-02 -7.998608e-03 AC000089.3 -1.249026e-02 -7.870864e-04 -2.569602e-02 -3.165073e-03 AC000120.7 -1.313696e-02 5.923245e-03 1.633255e-02 4.077602e-02 AC000123.4 2.415996e-02 1.029732e-02 8.930792e-03 -1.118660e-02 AC000403.4 8.692835e-03 -3.060170e-02 3.746839e-02 -6.968971e-03 AC002064.4 -1.799590e-02 2.147160e-02 -2.303742e-02 7.647937e-03
Now how do i find which are the list or set of genes that gives me PC1 or PC2 so on
Any suggestion or help how to get the genes that make most difference between two major component that would be very helpful