The short version: If I have a SAM record, is there any simple way to retrieve the base aligned to a particular reference position without computing a pileup?
The long version: I'm using pysam to write some genotyping code. I have a BAM file with reads aligned to some amplicons. I'd now like to genotype a couple of positions of interest in each read while maintaining the phase information. For example, at amplicon 1, if read 1 has
A for SNP1 and
T at SNP2, then I want to report an
A,T genotype for read 1 at amplicon 1.
The typical way to genotype SNPs of interest is to compute a pileup and look at all of the aligned bases position-by-position. The pysam API includes the following example of how to work with pileups.
import pysam samfile = pysam.AlignmentFile("ex1.bam", "rb" ) for pileupcolumn in samfile.pileup("chr1", 100, 120): print ("\ncoverage at base %s = %s" % (pileupcolumn.pos, pileupcolumn.n)) for pileupread in pileupcolumn.pileups: if not pileupread.is_del and not pileupread.is_refskip: # query position is None if is_del or is_refskip is set. print ('\tbase in read %s = %s' % (pileupread.alignment.query_name, pileupread.alignment.query_sequence[pileupread.query_position])) samfile.close()
However, I lose the phasing information if I analyze the data position-by-position. Is there any way to flip this example so that I'm iterating over reads in the outer loop, and then over positions in the inner loop? In other words, if I'm iterating over reads, is there any simple way to retrieve the base aligned to a particular reference position without computing a pileup?
As a potential solution, I've though about storing genotype information in a nested dictionary indexed first by read ID and then by position, but depending on coverage that could be incredibly memory intensive.